5 Steps To Take Within 5 Years Of Retirement

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Have you entered, or are close to entering, “The Red Zone” of retirement?

The 5 years prior to retirement are among the most important of your retirement planning.

I’m well into The Red Zone, and would like to share some of the best advice I’ve read on the topic, as well as steps I’m taking in my personal planning for retirement.  Finally, I’ve suggested several “To Do” items under each of the steps to help you get started on the critical tasks recommended below.

5 Steps To Take Within 5 Years of Retirement

I don’t know if it’s due to demographics, or “group think”, but I’ve seen a lot of articles in the past few weeks about this topic (I’ve put links to them at the bottom of this article).   Fortunately for you, I’ve reviewed them all, and have highlighted the top 5 steps you should take within 5 years of retirement:

1. Make The Numbers Real

Real Numbers

Even if you’ve been hesitant throughout your working years to understand “your numbers”, you can no longer afford to stick your head in the sand. Bottom line:  you can’t answer the question of “When Can I Retire?” without knowing how much you need to fund your lifestyle, and how much income you can count on after you leave your job.  Run a few online retirement calculators and compare the results. If you’ve been thinking about buying long term care insurance, evalute it now and include it in your retirement spending plan. Learn about social security claiming strategies, and build them into your retirement cash flow projection. Spend the time with the numbers, or book some time with a professional Certified Financial Planner.  Don’t make the decision to retire until you’ve done this step.

What I’m Doing:  I’m a bit of a number nerd, so I’ve built spreadsheets which project our cash flow out through Age 95 under various market scenarios.  My wife and I also tracked our actual spending for 10 months to insure our estimates were realistic.  For income, I’m targeting a 3% withdrawal rate (vs. the historical “rule of thumb” of 4%) from our investments due to my belief that equities will have a below average return in the coming decades.

To Do’s:  Read my “When Can I Retire” series to determine when you can retire. Track your spending for a few months (use the “Spending Tracker” I built for my readers here).  Put together your Net Worth statement, (use my template here) and project how much income you can expect in retirement.  Test out an online retirement calculator.  If you need to learn more about personal finance, check here for some online classes. If you’d rather hire a professional to do the work, click here.

2. Get Your Portfolio Ready For Withdrawals


After 30+ years of work and contributions to your savings, the time is coming when those “inflows” will become “outflows”.  I’ve not yet experienced that change, but I’ve heard from others that it takes some getting used to.  Make sure you’ve built a 1-2 year cash reserve before you retire to help cushion any downturns, and diversify your investments across an appropriate asset allocation to maximize your return while respecting your risk tolerance.  Consider annuities if you need some predictable income to cover your base expenses.  If you’ve got multiple investment accounts, consider simplifying and consolidating your holdings.

What I’m Doing:  Having just sold our “primary” home, we generated a bit of cash and liquidity.  We’re intentionally going to carry the cash position as our 2 year reserve into retirement, and only invest any money which is in excess of the 2 year reserve.  We also analyze and adjust our asset allocation annually.  Finally, I’ve written a “love letter” to my wife with instructions to have Vanguard’s Personal Advisory service take over the management of our accounts if I were to die unexpectedly.

To Do’s:  Study up on Asset Allocation, and make sure you’re adjusting your portfolio to the new risk tolerance levels you’ll have in retirement.  Focus on building up your cash reserve, to avoid having to sell any investments during a downturn in the market.  Better to build it up gradually over the 5 years prior to retirement than to be faced with having to sell during a bear market in your first few years after work (this phenomenon, called “sequence risk”, is one of the highest risks you’ll need to manage in retirement).


3. Decide Where You’ll Live, And Pay Off The House (?)


Now is the time to decide where you’re going to live in retirement.  You’ve got a few years before you need to make the move, so take the time to really think through what you want your retirement to be.  Do you want to move, or stay put?  Do you want a small place where you can stay 6 months, then travel the other 6 months?  Or….would you rather have a big house for all of the family gatherings, and have it near your kids?  Spend some extended time in the areas you’re thinking about.  Rent a house for a week to get a feel for what it’s like to live there.  Start watching real estate listings to get a sense of the market.  If you’re going to sell your home, start sprucing it up now to avoid the last minute rush of getting it ready for market.  Once you’ve figured out what you’d like to do, consider paying off your mortgage to reduce your retirement expenses.  If you’re staying put and have a lot of equity in your home, learn about reverse mortgages and see if they make sense for you.

What I’m Doing:  3 years ago, my wife and I bought a cabin in the North Georgia mountains as part of our eventual downsizing strategy (the strategy is outlined here).  We spent a lot of time at the cabin, and rented it out when we weren’t using it to have our renters pay the mortgage for us.  We intentionally targeted a price range which would allow us to pay off the cabin after we sold our primary residence.  We just sold our house in 7 days, and will be applying the liquidity from the home sale into two areas:  paying off the cabin, and building our 2 years of cash reserve.  I’ll continue to work, commuting to the office from a small “city apartment” during the week.  The plan is coming together, and it feels good.  Make sure you develop and execute your plan during your final 5 years of work.

To Do’s:  Spend several weeks of this year’s vacation at a place you’re interested in potentially living during retirement.  If there’s a chance you’ll be selling your house in the next 5 years, start building a list of items you need to spruce up.  (Read this to see what we did to prepare the house for sale, and this to see how we got rid of all of our stuff). Then, spend a few weekends over the next year working on the projects that have the longest “shelf life” (e.g., they’ll still look good when you sell the house).  Review your mortgage statement to see how much of your loan you have left to payoff, then evaluate targeting this as a goal before you retire (the “return” on your money is essentially equal to your interest rate – you’ll lose the tax deduction for the interest, but if you invested the same amount you’d owe taxes on the investment return).  If you don’t have sufficient liquidity to pay off the house AND build a 2 year cash reserve, focus on the cash reserve first.


4. Catch Up

catch up

In your final years of work, you should attempt to live on your retirement budget and aggressively save the difference.   Take advantage of “catch up” clauses, which allow you to fund more into your retirement accounts in your final years of work.  If you have a Health Savings Account (HSA), consider saving the maximum every year before retirement to begin pre-building a hedge against retirement health care expenses.

What I’m Doing:  For the past 30 years, I’ve increased my 401(k) contributions every year with my pay raise (if I got a 3% raise, I’d increase my 401(k) by 2% and “take home” a 1% increase).  This has “forced” us to “live below our means”, and has allowed us to reach the point where we’re maxing out all possible retirement savings, including full utilization of the catch-up clause and HSA limits.   In addition, we make regular monthly ACH transfers to after-tax investments (primarily in Vanguard mutual funds). Living below your means, and aggressively saving, is the #1 trick to achieving an early retirement.  If you’ve not done it in the past, start now.

To Do’s:  If you’re in The Red Zone, it’s time to stop making any excuses about low savings rates.  Get aggressive now, or you’ll work until you die.  A bit dramatic, perhaps, but it really is time to get serious about reducing your spending and increasing your savings.  I challenge you today to increase your current retirement savings by 1% this week, then take your next raise in it’s entirety and throw it into savings.  Read this article to see how you could save several thousand dollars on your tax bill by taking advantage of catch-up contributions.  Stretch yourself to try to max them out (hey, living on less will be good practice for your retirement, anyway!)

5.  Find Something To Run “To”

reach for the stars

When at work, work!  Keep your focus on your job while you’re still employed, but don’t ignore retirement planning.  After your days are no longer consumed by work, what are you going to do?  As I wrote in “Will Retirement Be Depressing?”,  retirement increases the probability of depression by 40%.  While some folks end up depressed, others find retirement to be the best years of life.  What seperates the two groups? It turns out the biggest factor is having something to “Run To” in retirement (instead of “Running From” work).

Below are the steps I suggested in the “depression” article, and they’re relevant again in this “5 years” article.  To increase your probability of a great retirement, think through the bullet points and pick a few to begin working on while you’re in The Red Zone:

  • A strong focus on achieving balance in your life BEFORE retirement.
  • Intentionally accelerate your development of external interests in your final 3-5 years of work.
  • Strive to find other areas in your life to develop, and “ramp these up” as you approach retirement.
  • Develop alternative means to develop the socialization and self-esteem that work brings, and begin that development as part of your retirement planning.
  • Begin populating a bucket list of items you’d like to do in retirement.  Broaden it to include categories beyond travel.  Stretch yourself.

What I’m Doing:  I’m intentionally pursuing every one of the bullet points above.  One example is writing this blog.  I started it a year ago as a means of covering two of the bullet points (before I had even written the bullet points, or learned that the concepts were important elements of a successful retirement).  The writing of the blog covers “accelerate external interests” and “alternative means of socialization and self-esteem”.   I’m also keeping my eyes out for opportunities to get engaged in new opportunities in our new home of Blue Ridge, GA, and will develop those prior to retirement.

To Do’s:  Read “Will Retirement Be Depressing?”, then start developing a bucket list. Read “What Life Is Really Like In Retirement” for an article Kiplinger’s wrote about the topic.  Read The Purpose  (an article I wrote when The Retirement Manifesto was only one week old), then think about what your own “Purpose Statement” should be for retirement.  Intentionally seek out areas now that you can develop after retirement (relationships, organizations, hobbies, etc.).  Start a blog!



If you’re in The Red Zone, it’s time to get serious about your retirement planning.  Don’t just “let it happen” and end up depressed.  Use this phase in your life as an opportunity to plan something truly great.  If you follow the 5 steps outlined above, you’ll be well on your way to a Truly Great Retirement, and I’ll have moved just a bit closer to this blog’s purpose of “Helping People Achieve A Great Retirement”!



Additional Reading:

Below are some of the sources I read as preparation for this article, including a summary of their recommended steps in The Red Zone.  Click on the header to read the full article:


  1. Put real numbers on your retirement.
  2. Book time with a career coach.
  3. Debt:  Decide whether you should be mortgage-free.
  4. Pick your retirement home.
  5. Simplify your finances.


  1. Increase Cash Reserves.
  2. Estimate How Much Money You Need To Retire.
  3. Evaluate Tax Consequences.
  4. Diversify Your Investments.
  5. Educate yourself.

US News:

  1. Tighten up your budget.
  2. Add catch-up contributions to your savings.
  3. Meet with a financial advisor.
  4. Fix up your house.
  5. Pay off your vehicle and home.


  1. Max out your accounts.
  2. Plan for long-term care.
  3. Create a retirement budget.
  4. Plot your social security strategy.
  5. Tap your home equity.

About – Retirement Planning In Your 50’s:

  1. Run projections using retirement calculators.
  2. Get a handle on spending.
  3. Educate yourself.
  4. Focus on your career.
  5. Invest and save, don’t speculate.
  6. Review regularly.




  1. Fritz – Another great article. We pretty much followed these same steps for the past three years. Our plan was to retire in five years but after seeing how well we were set up we decided to retire two years earlier than planned. I have 30 days to go before we begin our retirement journey.

    1. CONGRATULATIONS! An outstanding success story! Truly happy (and, if I’m honest, a bit envious) for you achieving the dream even earlier than planned!! Congrats on demonstrating that these principles hold true. Save, diversify, study & plan. I’m sincerely happy for you and the success you’re having on the journey!

  2. Fritz
    This is one of your most informative and direct articles. Thank you for providing all the links, very helpful. Keep the information flowing.

  3. I especially agree with your point #5, “Find Something to Run to.” Not retiring from, but retiring to. Like you, I’ve started a website (well, two actually), which not only give me something to do, but will also bring in additional retirement income.

    And with the likes of Udemy and Lynda, there are just so many possibilities to learn a new hobby or skill to keep you engaged and far from getting depressed in retirement.

    1. A fellow retirement planning blogger!! Thanks so much for your insight, Maggie! I’m pleased that you’re in agreement with the 5 steps, and I’m in agreement with you that #5 is the most important one. Thanks again! Fritz

  4. Thanks, good information and so important to use this Red Zone in every way! Having divorced 7 years ago, I Am building my retirement that I intend for 2.5 years from now. Who I will be and what I plan to do and to afford me. What I find interesting is when I talk w investment planner, PERA advisor and my employer’s human resources retirement advisor, I am told to contact them 3 to 6 months before I actually retire. They are a bit dismayed that I want this information now please to plan anticipated needs. I need to do now and what to expect later for planning. Waiting until “3-6” months is “after the horses have left the gate.”
    I encourage people to dig in during “red zone” 1) I found that my employer allows an additional $3000 annual catch up for 15 year plus employees to the 403b. This takes the $24000 to $27000 that I will do for my remaining work years; 2)what will be available as to retirement health insurance costs and reimbursements 3)RMD approach for least impact tax wise 4)and specifics on what to do when so as to utilize what is available without penalties.
    My quarterly plan of work is as important for home as it is for work

  5. Hey, good article. I just retired two months ago at 60, and had been taking the steps you recommend. Particularly the “something to run to”. I had fallen out of love with my job after 36 great years and two pretty lousy ones at the tail end and was ready to go but hadn’t found what to go “to”. Well, I was very lucky and a perfect part time totally flexible and not by the hour consulting job literally fell into my lap. It pays far less than my old career but it only takes about two days of work per week and still pays enough to cover most of my and my wife’s expenses. We have more than enough saved to live off our investments but with the part time gig we don’t have to raid the investments much at all, and that feels pretty good.

    So I said good by and good riddance to a high paid but high stress career and hello to one I enjoy. My wife and I are fishing, running, hiking, playing tennis and planning travel. I still enjoy rubbing shoulders with most of the same business and industry leaders and politicians in our state that I’ve known for years but have four day weekends every week! The things I feared about losing my identity if I lost my job seem silly now, maybe because I still have a foot in the work world, and it feels to me like I have the best of both worlds now! Anyway, thanks for the consistently great advice, it has worked for me.

    1. Steve, what a great story. You played it perfectly. Thanks for validating my steps, and I’m sincerely happy for you in your new “part time” gig (a great solution, and one I’m considering as one option at the end of my “full time” working career). I’d like to be in a position where I absolutely DON’T need to work, then work only if I want to, at something I enjoy, with no need for the money.

  6. This is a really nice article. I am a financial adviser and am going to send it out to my clients as part of my newsletter. You have done a nice job of breaking down the steps in the process and how people can begin to prepare for their life after work. I think it is much better for people to get a sense of what to do from real people going through the process instead of the typical mumbo jumbo from the financial services industry which overstates how difficult the process is so they can capture assets or sell products. Good job!

  7. Nice article i am planning to retire in 3 years wiil be 55. Scary but i been doing your steps for the last 10 years. And it works.planning to retire outside US.money goes further with pension and investment plus 401k.i will definitely follow your blog.


    1. Thanks for signing up for my email, Nick! Glad to have you on “The Team”. We sound like kindred souls…..would love to keep in touch and hear about your adventure if you do end up retiring outside the USA!

  8. I retired a few weeks after my 56th birthday. We haven’t looked back since. I did loads of planning pre retirement, including scenarios of – If I go at 55, 58, 60 etc. It is really worth it. You don’t get (m)any nasty surprises that way. You do get the odd one, but if your planning is sound, it won’t matter

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